Meet the BeagleBone Blue: an open source, Linux based robotics controller designed with makers in mind. It is powered by the Octavo Systems OSD3358 1GHz ARM Cortex-A8 and has 512MB RAM and 4 GB of flash storage. You also get various GPIO and serial protocol connectors, a 9-axis IMU and barometer, and PC USB interface.
Blue is compatible with Debian, ROS, and Ardupilot. You can program it in Python.